Sociology Chapter 4.pdf

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Askari College for Women, Rawalpindi*
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SOC 1
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3
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Feb 10, 2024
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3 Main Ideas Herbert Blumer theory of symbolic interaction - the idea that social interaction depends on social construction of reality Erving Goffman's dramaturgy - practice of looking at social life as a series of performances Harold Garfinkel's ethnomethodology - type of research aimed at revealing the underlying share logic that is foundation for social interaction Interpersonal discrimination - prejudicial behavior displayed by individuals Field experiment - experimental method that involves a test of hypothesis outside laboratory Normality isn't nothing it is something, not something we are, but something we do Social interaction - moments we share with other people Social interaction is spontaneous performance required rapid calculations and balance Social rules - culturally specific norms, policies, and laws that guide our behavior Folkways - loosely enforced norms, used to facilitate everyday social interaction, separate right from rude Mores - more tightly enforced norms that carry moral significance, separate right or wrong bullying , making jokes, harming animals or children, mocking vulnerable populations Taboos - most extreme, proscriptive norms, thought of violating these can be seen sickening, violating these cause extreme negative emotions, most avoid Policies - rules that are made and enforced by organizations Laws - rules that are made and enforced by cities, states, or federal government Why do we follow social rules? To be courteous, out of habit, for convenience, or we endorse them, because breaking them can attract negative attention Social sanctions - reactions by others aimed at promoting conformity Some sanctioning - physical and verbal attack, public shaming, loss of opportunities We all participate in promoting conformity by rewarding and punishing others depending on whether they follow the rule
Account - an excuse that explains our rule breaking but also affirms that rule is good and right Two parts to this, an acknowledgement that rule is valid and explanation why we broke it that resonates with observer "I wouldn't have rolled through the stop sign, officer, but our daughter has just been admitted to the ER and we're in a hurry." Symbolic Interactionism - Herbert Blumer Symbolic interactionism - theory that social interaction depends on social construction of reality 3 key ideas: First, we don't generally respond to reality itself, but to the meaning we give it Example: Hug Never just a hug, means hello, or goodbye, congratulations or seduction or whatever Hug can mean different things, depending on huggers' shared understanding of what is going on Symbolic interactionism suggest meaning of reality does not exist prior to human understanding but is produced through social interaction Meaning is negotiated in interaction Dramaturgy - Erving Goffman Dramaturgy - practice of looking at social life as a series of performances in which we are all actors on a metaphorical stage The set is the situation The role are the relative position in social interaction Props are symbols We behave according to constraint of situation and role we are expected to play Impression management - efforts to control how we are perceived by others Face- a version of ourselves that we want to project in a specific setting, and doing face-work, effort required to establish and maintain our face Front stage- pubic space in which we are aware of having an audience Backstage - in private or semi private spaces in which we can relax or rehearse Out of face - acting contradictory to one's desired face or otherwise exposed as violation of it Loses face - must do extra face work to save face, or recover face that has been lost
Social Identities and Social Interactions Men are unmarked identity, Women are marked Role identity match - a correspondence between type of person in role and role itself Role identity mismatch - potentially jarring lack of correspondence Interpersonal discrimination - prejudicial behavior displayed by individuals Ranges from hate crimes to subtle and ambiguous (rude treatment) Field experiment - research method that involves a test of a hypothesis outside the laboratory Universe of social rules is bigger than it looks (like iceberg) Ethnomethodology - research aimed at revealing underlying shared logic that is foundation of social interactions Ethnomethods - set of culturally specific background assumptions that we use to make sense of everyday life Breaching - purposefully breaking social rule in order to test how others respond We generally aim to develop and maintain same ethnomethods as people around us
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