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HomeStudy GuidesPhysics

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The Nature of Science and Physics

Kinematics

Introduction to One-Dimensional KinematicsDisplacementVectors, Scalars, and Coordinate SystemsTime, Velocity, and SpeedVideo: One-Dimensional KinematicsAccelerationMotion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One DimensionProblem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional KinematicsFalling ObjectsGraphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion

Two-Dimensional Kinematics

Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion

Introduction to Dynamics: Newton's Laws of MotionDevelopment of Force ConceptNewton's First Law of Motion: InertiaNewton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a SystemNewton's Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in ForcesVideo: Newton's LawsNormal, Tension, and Other Examples of ForcesProblem-Solving StrategiesFurther Applications of Newton's Laws of MotionExtended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction

Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity

Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation

Introduction to Uniform Circular Motion and GravitationRotation Angle and Angular VelocityCentripetal AccelerationCentripetal ForceFictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis ForceNewton's Universal Law of GravitationVideo: GravitationSatellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity

Work, Energy, and Energy Resources

Introduction to Work, Energy, and Energy ResourcesWork: The Scientific DefinitionKinetic Energy and the Work-Energy TheoremGravitational Potential EnergyVideo: Potential and Kinetic EnergyConservative Forces and Potential EnergyNonconservative ForcesConservation of EnergyPowerWork, Energy, and Power in HumansWorld Energy Use

Linear Momentum and Collisions

Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum

Introduction to Rotational Motion and Angular MomentumAngular AccelerationKinematics of Rotational MotionVideo: Rotational MotionDynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational InertiaRotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy RevisitedAngular Momentum and Its ConservationVideo: Angular MomentumCollisions of Extended Bodies in Two DimensionsGyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum

Statics and Torque

Fluid Statics

Introduction to Fluid StaticsWhat Is a Fluid?DensityPressureVariation of Pressure with Depth in a FluidPascal's PrincipleGauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure MeasurementArchimedes' PrincipleVideo: BuoyancyCohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary ActionPressures in the Body

Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications

Introduction to Fluid Dynamics and Biological and Medical ApplicationsFlow Rate and Its Relation to VelocityBernoulli's EquationVideo: Fluid FlowThe Most General Applications of Bernoulli's EquationViscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille's LawThe Onset of TurbulenceMotion of an Object in a Viscous FluidMolecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes

Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws

Heat and Heat Transfer Methods

Thermodynamics

Introduction to ThermodynamicsThe First Law of ThermodynamicsThe First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple ProcessesIntroduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their EfficiencyCarnot's Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics RestatedApplications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and RefrigeratorsEntropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of EnergyStatistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation

Oscillatory Motion and Waves

Introduction to Oscillatory Motion and WavesHooke's Law: Stress and Strain RevisitedPeriod and Frequency in OscillationsSimple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic MotionVideo: Harmonic MotionThe Simple PendulumEnergy and the Simple Harmonic OscillatorUniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic MotionDamped Harmonic MotionForced Oscillations and ResonanceWavesSuperposition and InterferenceEnergy in Waves: Intensity

Physics of Hearing

- State the characteristics of a wave.
- Calculate the velocity of wave propagation.

What do we mean when we say something is a wave? The most intuitive and easiest wave to imagine is the familiar water wave. More precisely, a

A wave is a disturbance that propagates, or moves from the place it was created. The simplest waves repeat themselves for several cycles and are associated with simple harmonic motion. Let us start by considering the simplified water wave in Figure 2. The wave is an up and down disturbance of the water surface. It causes a sea gull to move up and down in simple harmonic motion as the wave crests and troughs (peaks and valleys) pass under the bird. The time for one complete up and down motion is the wave’s period

$f=\frac{1}{T}\\$

, as usual. The wave itself moves to the right in Figure 2. This movement of the wave is actually the disturbance moving to the right, not the water itself (or the bird would move to the right). We define The water wave in the figure also has a length associated with it, called its

$v_{\text{w}}=\frac{\lambda}{T}\\$

or $v_{\text{w}}=\frac{\lambda}{T}\\$

to find the wave velocity.$v_{\text{w}}=\frac{\lambda}{T}\\$

:$v_{\text{w}}=\frac{10.0\text{ m}}{5.00\text{ s}}\\$

Solve for Waves may be transverse, longitudinal, or

Sound waves in air and water are longitudinal. Their disturbances are periodic variations in pressure that are transmitted in fluids. Fluids do not have appreciable shear strength, and thus the sound waves in them must be longitudinal or compressional. Sound in solids can be both longitudinal and transverse.

Earthquake waves under Earth’s surface also have both longitudinal and transverse components (called compressional or P-waves and shear or S-waves, respectively). These components have important individual characteristics—they propagate at different speeds, for example. Earthquakes also have surface waves that are similar to surface waves on water.

- A wave is a disturbance that moves from the point of creation with a wave velocity
*v*_{w}. - A wave has a wavelength
*λ*, which is the distance between adjacent identical parts of the wave. - Wave velocity and wavelength are related to the wave’s frequency and period by ${v}_{\text{w}}=\frac{\lambda }{T}\\$or
*v*_{w}= f*λ*. - A transverse wave has a disturbance perpendicular to its direction of propagation, whereas a longitudinal wave has a disturbance parallel to its direction of propagation.

- Give one example of a transverse wave and another of a longitudinal wave, being careful to note the relative directions of the disturbance and wave propagation in each.
- What is the difference between propagation speed and the frequency of a wave? Does one or both affect wavelength? If so, how?

- Storms in the South Pacific can create waves that travel all the way to the California coast, which are 12,000 km away. How long does it take them if they travel at 15.0 m/s?
- Waves on a swimming pool propagate at 0.750 m/s. You splash the water at one end of the pool and observe the wave go to the opposite end, reflect, and return in 30.0 s. How far away is the other end of the pool?
- Wind gusts create ripples on the ocean that have a wavelength of 5.00 cm and propagate at 2.00 m/s. What is their frequency?
- How many times a minute does a boat bob up and down on ocean waves that have a wavelength of 40.0 m and a propagation speed of 5.00 m/s?
- Scouts at a camp shake the rope bridge they have just crossed and observe the wave crests to be 8.00 m apart. If they shake it the bridge twice per second, what is the propagation speed of the waves?
- What is the wavelength of the waves you create in a swimming pool if you splash your hand at a rate of 2.00 Hz and the waves propagate at 0.800 m/s?
- What is the wavelength of an earthquake that shakes you with a frequency of 10.0 Hz and gets to another city 84.0 km away in 12.0 s?
- Radio waves transmitted through space at 3.00 × 10
^{8}m/s by the Voyager spacecraft have a wavelength of 0.120 m. What is their frequency? - Your ear is capable of differentiating sounds that arrive at the ear just 1.00 ms apart. What is the minimum distance between two speakers that produce sounds that arrive at noticeably different times on a day when the speed of sound is 340 m/s?
- (a) Seismographs measure the arrival times of earthquakes with a precision of 0.100 s. To get the distance to the epicenter of the quake, they compare the arrival times of S- and P-waves, which travel at different speeds. [link]) If S- and P-waves travel at 4.00 and 7.20 km/s, respectively, in the region considered, how precisely can the distance to the source of the earthquake be determined? (b) Seismic waves from underground detonations of nuclear bombs can be used to locate the test site and detect violations of test bans. Discuss whether your answer to (a) implies a serious limit to such detection. (Note also that the uncertainty is greater if there is an uncertainty in the propagation speeds of the S- and P-waves.)

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