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HomeStudy GuidesPhysics

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The Nature of Science and Physics

Kinematics

Introduction to One-Dimensional KinematicsDisplacementVectors, Scalars, and Coordinate SystemsTime, Velocity, and SpeedVideo: One-Dimensional KinematicsAccelerationMotion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One DimensionProblem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional KinematicsFalling ObjectsGraphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion

Two-Dimensional Kinematics

Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion

Introduction to Dynamics: Newton's Laws of MotionDevelopment of Force ConceptNewton's First Law of Motion: InertiaNewton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a SystemNewton's Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in ForcesVideo: Newton's LawsNormal, Tension, and Other Examples of ForcesProblem-Solving StrategiesFurther Applications of Newton's Laws of MotionExtended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction

Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity

Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation

Introduction to Uniform Circular Motion and GravitationRotation Angle and Angular VelocityCentripetal AccelerationCentripetal ForceFictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis ForceNewton's Universal Law of GravitationVideo: GravitationSatellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity

Work, Energy, and Energy Resources

Introduction to Work, Energy, and Energy ResourcesWork: The Scientific DefinitionKinetic Energy and the Work-Energy TheoremGravitational Potential EnergyVideo: Potential and Kinetic EnergyConservative Forces and Potential EnergyNonconservative ForcesConservation of EnergyPowerWork, Energy, and Power in HumansWorld Energy Use

Linear Momentum and Collisions

Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum

Introduction to Rotational Motion and Angular MomentumAngular AccelerationKinematics of Rotational MotionVideo: Rotational MotionDynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational InertiaRotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy RevisitedAngular Momentum and Its ConservationVideo: Angular MomentumCollisions of Extended Bodies in Two DimensionsGyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum

Statics and Torque

Fluid Statics

Introduction to Fluid StaticsWhat Is a Fluid?DensityPressureVariation of Pressure with Depth in a FluidPascal's PrincipleGauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure MeasurementArchimedes' PrincipleVideo: BuoyancyCohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary ActionPressures in the Body

Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications

Introduction to Fluid Dynamics and Biological and Medical ApplicationsFlow Rate and Its Relation to VelocityBernoulli's EquationVideo: Fluid FlowThe Most General Applications of Bernoulli's EquationViscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille's LawThe Onset of TurbulenceMotion of an Object in a Viscous FluidMolecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes

Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws

Heat and Heat Transfer Methods

Thermodynamics

Introduction to ThermodynamicsThe First Law of ThermodynamicsThe First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple ProcessesIntroduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their EfficiencyCarnot's Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics RestatedApplications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and RefrigeratorsEntropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of EnergyStatistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation

Oscillatory Motion and Waves

Introduction to Oscillatory Motion and WavesHooke's Law: Stress and Strain RevisitedPeriod and Frequency in OscillationsSimple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic MotionVideo: Harmonic MotionThe Simple PendulumEnergy and the Simple Harmonic OscillatorUniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic MotionDamped Harmonic MotionForced Oscillations and ResonanceWavesSuperposition and InterferenceEnergy in Waves: Intensity

Physics of Hearing

- Define position, displacement, distance, and distance traveled.
- Explain the relationship between position and displacement.
- Distinguish between displacement and distance traveled.
- Calculate displacement and distance given initial position, final position, and the path between the two.

Displacement is the *change in position* of an object:

*x* is displacement, *x*_{f} is the final position, and *x*_{0} is the initial position.

Δ*x* = *x*_{f} − *x*_{o,}

Note that the SI unit for displacement is the meter (m) (see Physical Quantities and Units), but sometimes kilometers, miles, feet, and other units of length are used. Keep in mind that when units other than the meter are used in a problem, you may need to convert them into meters to complete the calculation.

Δ*x* = *x*_{f} − *x*_{o }= 3.5 m − 1.5 m = +2.0 m

Δ*x* = *x*_{f} − *x*_{o }= 2.0 m − 6.0 m =−4.0 m

His displacement is negative because his motion is toward the rear of the plane, or in the negative (a) The rider’s displacement is Δ

(b) The distance traveled is 3 km + 2 km = 5 km.

(c) The magnitude of the displacement is 1 km.

- Kinematics is the study of motion without considering its causes. In this chapter, it is limited to motion along a straight line, called one-dimensional motion.
- Displacement is the change in position of an object.
- In symbols, displacement Δ
*x*is defined to be

Δ*x* = *x*_{f} − *x*_{o,}

where *x*_{o} is the initial position and *x*_{f} is the final position. In this text, the Greek letter Δ (delta) always means "change in" whatever quantity follows it. The SI unit for displacement is the meter (m). Displacement has a direction as well as a magnitude.

- When you start a problem, assign which direction will be positive.
- Distance is the magnitude of displacement between two positions.
- Distance traveled is the total length of the path traveled between two positions.

1. Give an example in which there are clear distinctions among distance traveled, displacement, and magnitude of displacement. Specifically identify each quantity in your example.

2. Under what circumstances does distance traveled equal magnitude of displacement? What is the only case in which magnitude of displacement and displacement are exactly the same?

3. Bacteria move back and forth by using their flagella (structures that look like little tails). Speeds of up to 50μm/s (50 c 10^{-6} m/s) have been observed. The total distance traveled by a bacterium is large for its size, while its displacement is small. Why is this?

1. Find the following for path A in Figure 5: (a) The distance traveled. (b) The magnitude of the displacement from start to finish. (c) The displacement from start to finish.

2. Find the following for path B in Figure 5: (a) The distance traveled. (b) The magnitude of the displacement from start to finish. (c) The displacement from start to finish.

3. Find the following for path C in Figure 5: (a) The distance traveled. (b) The magnitude of the displacement from start to finish. (c) The displacement from start to finish.

4. Find the following for path D in Figure 5: (a) The distance traveled. (b) The magnitude of the displacement from start to finish. (c) The displacement from start to finish.

- kinematics:
- the study of motion without considering its causes

- position:
- the location of an object at a particular time

- displacement:
- the change in position of an object

- distance:
- the magnitude of displacement between two positions

- distance traveled:
- the total length of the path traveled between two positions

3. (a) 13 m (b) 9 m (c) +9 m