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HomeStudy GuidesPhysics

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The Nature of Science and Physics

Kinematics

Introduction to One-Dimensional KinematicsDisplacementVectors, Scalars, and Coordinate SystemsTime, Velocity, and SpeedVideo: One-Dimensional KinematicsAccelerationMotion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One DimensionProblem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional KinematicsFalling ObjectsGraphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion

Two-Dimensional Kinematics

Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion

Introduction to Dynamics: Newton's Laws of MotionDevelopment of Force ConceptNewton's First Law of Motion: InertiaNewton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a SystemNewton's Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in ForcesVideo: Newton's LawsNormal, Tension, and Other Examples of ForcesProblem-Solving StrategiesFurther Applications of Newton's Laws of MotionExtended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction

Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity

Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation

Introduction to Uniform Circular Motion and GravitationRotation Angle and Angular VelocityCentripetal AccelerationCentripetal ForceFictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis ForceNewton's Universal Law of GravitationVideo: GravitationSatellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity

Work, Energy, and Energy Resources

Introduction to Work, Energy, and Energy ResourcesWork: The Scientific DefinitionKinetic Energy and the Work-Energy TheoremGravitational Potential EnergyVideo: Potential and Kinetic EnergyConservative Forces and Potential EnergyNonconservative ForcesConservation of EnergyPowerWork, Energy, and Power in HumansWorld Energy Use

Linear Momentum and Collisions

Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum

Introduction to Rotational Motion and Angular MomentumAngular AccelerationKinematics of Rotational MotionVideo: Rotational MotionDynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational InertiaRotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy RevisitedAngular Momentum and Its ConservationVideo: Angular MomentumCollisions of Extended Bodies in Two DimensionsGyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum

Statics and Torque

Fluid Statics

Introduction to Fluid StaticsWhat Is a Fluid?DensityPressureVariation of Pressure with Depth in a FluidPascal's PrincipleGauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure MeasurementArchimedes' PrincipleVideo: BuoyancyCohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary ActionPressures in the Body

Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications

Introduction to Fluid Dynamics and Biological and Medical ApplicationsFlow Rate and Its Relation to VelocityBernoulli's EquationVideo: Fluid FlowThe Most General Applications of Bernoulli's EquationViscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille's LawThe Onset of TurbulenceMotion of an Object in a Viscous FluidMolecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes

Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws

Heat and Heat Transfer Methods

Thermodynamics

Introduction to ThermodynamicsThe First Law of ThermodynamicsThe First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple ProcessesIntroduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their EfficiencyCarnot's Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics RestatedApplications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and RefrigeratorsEntropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of EnergyStatistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation

Oscillatory Motion and Waves

Introduction to Oscillatory Motion and WavesHooke's Law: Stress and Strain RevisitedPeriod and Frequency in OscillationsSimple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic MotionVideo: Harmonic MotionThe Simple PendulumEnergy and the Simple Harmonic OscillatorUniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic MotionDamped Harmonic MotionForced Oscillations and ResonanceWavesSuperposition and InterferenceEnergy in Waves: Intensity

Physics of Hearing

- Explain Earth’s gravitational force.
- Describe the gravitational effect of the Moon on Earth.
- Discuss weightlessness in space.
- Examine the Cavendish experiment

Sir Isaac Newton was the first scientist to precisely define the gravitational force, and to show that it could explain both falling bodies and astronomical motions. See Figure 1. But Newton was not the first to suspect that the same force caused both our weight and the motion of planets. His forerunner Galileo Galilei had contended that falling bodies and planetary motions had the same cause. Some of Newton’s contemporaries, such as Robert Hooke, Christopher Wren, and Edmund Halley, had also made some progress toward understanding gravitation. But Newton was the first to propose an exact mathematical form and to use that form to show that the motion of heavenly bodies should be conic sections—circles, ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas. This theoretical prediction was a major triumph—it had been known for some time that moons, planets, and comets follow such paths, but no one had been able to propose a mechanism that caused them to follow these paths and not others.

According to early accounts (see Figure 1), Newton was inspired to make the connection between falling bodies and astronomical motions when he saw an apple fall from a tree and realized that if the gravitational force could extend above the ground to a tree, it might also reach the Sun. The inspiration of Newton’s apple is a part of worldwide folklore and may even be based in fact. Great importance is attached to it because Newton’s universal law of gravitation and his laws of motion answered very old questions about nature and gave tremendous support to the notion of underlying simplicity and unity in nature. Scientists still expect underlying simplicity to emerge from their ongoing inquiries into nature. The gravitational force is relatively simple. It is always attractive, and it depends only on the masses involved and the distance between them. Stated in modern language,

$F=G\frac{mM}{r^2}\\$

,
where $G=6.673\times 10^{-11}\frac{N\cdot{m^2}}{kg^2}\\$

in SI units. Note that the units of $F=G\frac{mM}{r^2}\\$

, when considering masses in kilograms and distance in meters. For example, two 1.000 kg masses separated by 1.000 m will experience a gravitational attraction of 6.6673 × 10Recall that the acceleration due to gravity

$mg=G\frac{mM}{r^2}\\$

,
where $g=G\frac{M}{r^2}\\$

.
Substituting known values for Earth’s mass and radius (to three significant figures),$\displaystyle{g}=\left(6.67\times10^{-11}\frac{N\cdot\text{ m}^2}{\text{kg}^2}\right)\times\frac{5.98\times10^{24}\text{ kg}}{\left(6.38\times10^6\text{ m}\right)^2}\\$

,
and we obtain a value for the acceleration of a falling body: *g* = 9.80 m/s^{2}.

This is the expected value

- Find the acceleration due to Earth’s gravity at the distance of the Moon.
- Calculate the centripetal acceleration needed to keep the Moon in its orbit (assuming a circular orbit about a fixed Earth), and compare it with the value of the acceleration due to Earth’s gravity that you have just found.

$\displaystyle\begin{matrix}\\g=G\frac{M}{r^2}=\left(6.67\times10^{-11}\frac{N\cdot m^2}{\text{kg}^2}\right)\times\frac{5.98\times10^{24}\text{ kg}}{\left(3.84\times10^8\text{ m}\right)^2}\\\text{ }=2.70\times10^{-3}\text{ m/s}^2\end{matrix}\\$

$\begin{cases}a_c=\frac{v^2}{r}\\a_c=r\omega^2\end{cases}\\$

.
We choose to use the second form: $1\text{ d}\times24\frac{\text{hr}}{\text{d}}\times60\frac{\text{min}}{\text{hr}}\times60\frac{\text{s}}{\text{min}}=86,400\text{ s}\\$

,
we see that$\displaystyle\omega=\frac{\Delta\theta}{\Delta{t}}=\frac{2\pi\text{ rad}}{\left(27.3\text{ d}\right)\left(86,400\text{ s/d}\right)}=2.66\times10^{-6\frac{\text{rad}}{\text{s}}}\\$

The centripetal acceleration is$\begin{array}{lll}a_c&=&r\omega^2=(3.84\times10^8\text{m})(2.66\times10^{-6}\text{ rad/s}^2)\\\text{}&=&2.72\times10^{-3}\text{ m/s}^2\end{array}\\$

The direction of the acceleration is toward the center of the Earth.The Sun also affects tides, although it has about half the effect of the Moon. However, the largest tides, called spring tides, occur when Earth, the Moon, and the Sun are aligned. The smallest tides, called neap tides, occur when the Sun is at a90º angle to the Earth-Moon alignment.

Tides are not unique to Earth but occur in many astronomical systems. The most extreme tides occur where the gravitational force is the strongest and varies most rapidly, such as near black holes (see Figure 7). A few likely candidates for black holes have been observed in our galaxy. These have masses greater than the Sun but have diameters only a few kilometers across. The tidal forces near them are so great that they can actually tear matter from a companion star.

Some findings in human physiology in space can be clinically important to the management of diseases back on Earth. On a somewhat negative note, spaceflight is known to affect the human immune system, possibly making the crew members more vulnerable to infectious diseases. Experiments flown in space also have shown that some bacteria grow faster in microgravity than they do on Earth. However, on a positive note, studies indicate that microbial antibiotic production can increase by a factor of two in space-grown cultures. One hopes to be able to understand these mechanisms so that similar successes can be achieved on the ground. In another area of physics space research, inorganic crystals and protein crystals have been grown in outer space that have much higher quality than any grown on Earth, so crystallography studies on their structure can yield much better results. Plants have evolved with the stimulus of gravity and with gravity sensors. Roots grow downward and shoots grow upward.

Plants might be able to provide a life support system for long duration space missions by regenerating the atmosphere, purifying water, and producing food. Some studies have indicated that plant growth and development are not affected by gravity, but there is still uncertainty about structural changes in plants grown in a microgravity environment.

$mg=G\frac{mM}{r^2}\\$

, where $g=G\frac{M}{r^2}\\$

.
Rearranging to solve for $M=\frac{gr^2}{G}\\$

.
So - Newton’s universal law of gravitation: Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force along a line joining them. The force is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. In equation form, this is $F=G\frac{\text{mM}}{{r}^{2}}\\$, where F is the magnitude of the gravitational force.
*G*is the gravitational constant, given by*G*= 6.673 × 10^{−11}N·m^{2}/kg^{2}. - Newton’s law of gravitation applies universally.

- Action at a distance, such as is the case for gravity, was once thought to be illogical and therefore untrue. What is the ultimate determinant of the truth in physics, and why was this action ultimately accepted?
- Two friends are having a conversation. Anna says a satellite in orbit is in freefall because the satellite keeps falling toward Earth. Tom says a satellite in orbit is not in freefall because the acceleration due to gravity is not 9.80 m/s
^{2}. Who do you agree with and why? - Draw a free body diagram for a satellite in an elliptical orbit showing why its speed increases as it approaches its parent body and decreases as it moves away.
- Newton’s laws of motion and gravity were among the first to convincingly demonstrate the underlying simplicity and unity in nature. Many other examples have since been discovered, and we now expect to find such underlying order in complex situations. Is there proof that such order will always be found in new explorations?

- (a) Calculate Earth’s mass given the acceleration due to gravity at the North Pole is 9.830 m/s
^{2}and the radius of the Earth is 6371 km from pole to pole. (b) Compare this with the accepted value of 5.979 × 10^{24}kg. - (a) Calculate the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of Earth due to the Moon. (b) Calculate the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity at Earth due to the Sun. (c) Take the ratio of the Moon’s acceleration to the Sun’s and comment on why the tides are predominantly due to the Moon in spite of this number.
- (a) What is the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the Moon? (b) On the surface of Mars? The mass of Mars is 6.418 × 10
^{23 }kg and its radius is 3.38 × 10^{6 }m. - (a) Calculate the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the Sun. (b) By what factor would your weight increase if you could stand on the Sun? (Never mind that you cannot.)
- The Moon and Earth rotate about their common center of mass, which is located about 4700 km from the center of Earth. (This is 1690 km below the surface.) (a) Calculate the magnitude of the acceleration due to the Moon’s gravity at that point. (b) Calculate the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration of the center of Earth as it rotates about that point once each lunar month (about 27.3 d) and compare it with the acceleration found in part (a). Comment on whether or not they are equal and why they should or should not be.
- Solve part (b) of Example 1 using ${a}_{c}=\frac{{v}^{2}}{r}\\$.
- Astrology, that unlikely and vague pseudoscience, makes much of the position of the planets at the moment of one’s birth. The only known force a planet exerts on Earth is gravitational. (a) Calculate the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted on a 4.20 kg baby by a 100 kg father 0.200 m away at birth (he is assisting, so he is close to the child). (b) Calculate the magnitude of the force on the baby due to Jupiter if it is at its closest distance to Earth, some 6.29 × 10
^{11 }m away. How does the force of Jupiter on the baby compare to the force of the father on the baby? Other objects in the room and the hospital building also exert similar gravitational forces. (Of course, there could be an unknown force acting, but scientists first need to be convinced that there is even an effect, much less that an unknown force causes it.) - The existence of the dwarf planet Pluto was proposed based on irregularities in Neptune’s orbit. Pluto was subsequently discovered near its predicted position. But it now appears that the discovery was fortuitous, because Pluto is small and the irregularities in Neptune’s orbit were not well known. To illustrate that Pluto has a minor effect on the orbit of Neptune compared with the closest planet to Neptune: (a) Calculate the acceleration due to gravity at Neptune due to Pluto when they are 4.50 × 10
^{12}m apart, as they are at present. The mass of Pluto is 1.4 × 10^{22}kg. (b) Calculate the acceleration due to gravity at Neptune due to Uranus, presently about 2.50 × 10^{12}m apart, and compare it with that due to Pluto. The mass of Uranus is 8.62 × 10^{25}kg. - (a) The Sun orbits the Milky Way galaxy once each 2.60 × 10
^{8}y, with a roughly circular orbit averaging 3.00 × 10^{4}light years in radius. (A light year is the distance traveled by light in 1 y.) Calculate the centripetal acceleration of the Sun in its galactic orbit. Does your result support the contention that a nearly inertial frame of reference can be located at the Sun? (b) Calculate the average speed of the Sun in its galactic orbit. Does the answer surprise you **Unreasonable Result.**A mountain 10.0 km from a person exerts a gravitational force on him equal to 2.00% of his weight. (a) Calculate the mass of the mountain. (b) Compare the mountain’s mass with that of Earth. (c) What is unreasonable about these results? (d) Which premises are unreasonable or inconsistent? (Note that accurate gravitational measurements can easily detect the effect of nearby mountains and variations in local geology.)

3. (a) 1.62m/s

5. (a) 3.42 × 10

7. (a) 7.01 × 10

9. (a) 1.66 × 10

10. (a) 2.94 × 10